Does Superstrings emerge from the String Theory?

string theory

This whole blog revolves around the question Do Superstrings emerge from the String Theory? When studying theoretical physics, we are actually dealing with the hypothesis on the basis. We perform some of the experiments and then conclude the results. These experiments mostly do not involve complex mathematical calculations. These experiments don’t involve mathematical proof and because of that they are not widely accepted. Most of the common world remains unaware of these phenomenal ideas. The fact remains in its place that some of the pictures do not need any calculations or the physicists failed to develop such complex systems. These complex systems can solve such complex problems so this is the reason we need access to theoretical physics.

Moving towards the ambiguity while moving towards the superstrings, I came up with the confusion that perhaps it’s the part of string theory, which originated in the 1960s. If it came a long time back from now then the superstrings might be the modified case. Or there may be a close perfection theory regarding the quantum nature of particles.

String Theory

If we talk about string theory we come to know that this theory regards the dimensions in which the particle can exist simultaneously. Just like the particle can exist in the 4 dimensions. The four dimensions that we can visualize or interpret easily are the three spatial dimensions and the fourth dimension is of time. In string theory, we involve the 11 dimensions and demand to study the particles in these 11 dimensions. This is the one hypothetical brief answer about the string theory if one decides to explain this theory in a sentence.

Quantum Gravity

The next hypothesis, or we may say the reasoning about the string theory describes this theory as the limitation to the theory of quantum gravity. Quantum gravity unifies Einstein’s theory of relativity with quantum mechanics, in which we study particles in a space known to be Hilbert Space. Quantum gravity is in itself a weird case. Earlier physicists took the matter to be energy and energy to be quantized but dealt with gravity classically and defined it as just a force. One of the physicists of UCL (University College of London) JOHNATHEN OPPENHEIMER put up a hypothesis in which he tries to reject the quantum gravity theory.

String Theory as Quantum Gravity

But as far as taking quantum gravity into consideration, string theory provides a limitation to string theory because string theory does not explain the phenomena of gravity. The reason lies in the fact that when we try to study the particle in these 11 dimensions we are actually trying to study the particles from different perspectives or planes. And we already know the 4 dimensions the fifth dimension is of MASS. The sixth dimension perhaps comes out to be of different planes of the same particle. The seventh dimension that we try to interpret perhaps might not be the case.

It comes out to be the different planes of different particles, similarly, in the same way, we can interpret the other three dimensions. I’m again saying that these interpretations might be wrong. But the main focus I wanted you to have is to think about how we treat string theory to study the particles.

So while studying the particle so complexly we ignore gravity but at the quantum level. This might not be the case as we have another phenomenon known as quantum gravity which cannot be ignored. So by using string theory, we can just get an idea of hidden quantum gravity that’s it.

String Theory to Explain Gauge Theoriesj

This theory also provides a pillar to understand the other gauge theories. Gauge theories are a type of theoretical framework in physics that describes the behavior of particles and forces. In a gauge theory particles are described as the excitation of a field and forces are described as interactions between these fields. The theory “gauge invariant” means that it is independent of choosing a particular set of coordinates or reference frames. This allows the theory to describe the same physical phenomenon in different ways depending on the reference frame used. Gauge theories have been used to describe the behavior of many particles and forces. These forces include the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force, and the weak nuclear force.

The description of string theory is all mathematical. This holds that despite the hypothetical theory, there lies the mathematical approach that provides the theory a letter of acceptance.

The string theory is also known to be the Bosonic string theory since it was first depicted by SATYANDRA NATH BOSE. It is known to be bosonic as it contains bosons in its spectrum. So it is not wrong to say that at first, the string theory developed was a testimonial for integer spin particles in the early 1960s. Here are the demonstrations of string theory;

the demonstrations of string theory

Superstrings

On the other hand, if we study superstrings we come to know that this theory involves the unification of all the four fundamental forces acting upon the particles. All these phenomena are imagined to happen on a single-dimensional string that exhibits supersymmetry, hence regarding the name superstring.

Supersymmetry implies the existence of superpartner particles associated with each particle. These superstrings are considered the building blocks of matter as they provide us information about the super partner particle associated with each particle on the superstring. They differ in a spin with a half-integer. It wouldn’t be wrong to say that superstrings are the Theory of Everything applied to the universal string of particles.

It proposes that the fundamental building blocks of the universe are tiny, one-dimensional strings that vibrate at different frequencies. These vibrations give rise to different types of particles roaming in about the universe such as HADRONS.

Like string theory, superstrings also include more dimensions other than the 4 dimensions. The other dimensions are complicated and curled and are thought to be too small to be observed directly.

Superstrings tend to explain quantum gravity more precisely as compared to original string theory as this theory is eligible to explain the same using Fermions in its spectrum.

Conclusion

From the above discussion, we can conclude that SUPERSTRINGS is the modified or more advanced form of STRING THEORY. It arose to overcome the limitations present in the string theory such as the old one was bosonic. It failed to explain quantum gravity as it exclude one of the fundamental forces, GRAVITATIONAL FORCE.     

References

https://www.indiatimes.com/technology/science-and-future/scientists-lhc-fifth-dimension-fermionic-dark-matter-534477.html

 http://www.damtp.cam.ac.uk/user/tong/string.html

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