Superconductors may be a BREAKTHROUGH!

superconductor levitation

Superconductivity is a thought-provoking phenomenon. This article leads to the ground analysis of how superconductors take place. What are the properties that are shown by the superconductors that are responsible for the breakthrough are discussed in this article.

What is Superconductivity?

Superconductivity is a process that occurs in superconductor devices. In this process, the device offers zero resistance to the electric current flowing through it. Even though if the temperature of the substance falls below the critical temperature. It is usually the case that the increase in temperature benefits the conductivity. Superconductors are devices that temperature does not largely affect.

superconductive vs non-superconductive

Critical Temperature:

The critical temperature of a superconductor is the temperature at which the electric resistivity becomes zero. It is the material property. Different substances have different values of critical temperature. I.e. here are some materials with their respective critical temperatures;

  • Aluminum                      1.2K
  • Indium                            3.4K
  • Lead                               7.2K
  • Mercury                       4.2K

Working of a Superconductor:

As stated earlier, temperature plays an important role in the conductance of electric current. When the temperature of the superconductor decreases below the critical temperature metals form bonds known as COOPER PAIRS. In a superconductor, an attractive binding occurs between a pair of electrons with equal and opposite momentum and spin. This pair is known as be Cooper Pair. The electrons in this case can offer no resistance when bounded like this. This phenomenon occurs only at low temperatures. I.e. below critical temperature. The reason lies in the fact that when the metal gets warm, the electrons gain enough energy to break these COOPER PAIRS.

magnetic field of super conductor

Types of Superconductors:

There are two different types of superconductors;

Type 1 Superconductor;

In this type, fundamental elements are used for conductance. These elements are used in everything from electrical wiring to computer microchips. Primarily type 1 superconductors have critical temperatures in a range of 0.000325K and 7.8K.  Two types of superconductors need a tremendous amount of pressure to achieve the required superconductive stage. An example of such a type of substance is SULPHUR.

Type 2 Superconductor;

This type involves the compounds of metals such as Copper and Lead. They attain a superconductive state at high temperatures compared to type 1 superconductors. Type 2 superconductors can penetrate through the magnetic field. Another property that distinguishes type 2 from type 1.

2 types of superconductors

Properties of Superconductors:

The superconductors exhibit unique properties that are necessary for the current technology and many other fields. These provide the basis for the BREAKTHROUGH that we intend to the following are the properties of Superconductors;

  • Infinite conductance
  • Critical temperature
  • Magnetic field expulsion
  • Critical magnetic field

Magnetic Field Expulsion:

As the name suggests magnetic field expulsion refers to the transition phenomena. When a material transits from a normal or a superconductive state it emits ma agnetic field from its interior. This effect is known to be MEISSNER EFFECT. MAGNATIC LAVITATION   is an example of MEISSNER EFFECT.

meissner effect of superconductor

Critical Magnetic Field:

It is that magnetic field value beyond which the superconductor returns to its conducting state. This value is inversely proportional to the temperature. Remember in this case an increasing magnetic field is provided to the superconductor.

Applications:

Regarding the above properties of the superconductors, a breakthrough can be seen in the field of physics. Following are the applications where we can use superconductors as beneficiaries.

  • Particle accelerators, computers,  transportation, generators
  • Electric motors, power transmissions
  • They are used in the field of medicine.
  • They are used in the establishment of electromagnetic scanners i.e. MRI
  • They are used in memory or storage devices i.e. quantum computers

Conclusion:

From the above discussion, it is not worthless to say that, superconductivity proved to be a breakthrough. This breakthrough is tremendous in the field of physics. We see different phenomena that are possible only through superconductivity. These phenomena include Quantum Levitation a mind-blowing concept. This superconductivity not only proves to be a breakthrough in the field of physics but also in the field of medicine. Such brilliant scanners are formed that can be made useful in the detection of infectious diseases.

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